In Spanish we don't need to emphasize or clarify the subject as in English or French, the conjugation tell us clearly. So, from your 6 choices in the first 4 you can avoid to say the pronoun. Guifa explais it very well.
Now, about your options: The 1 and 2 are incorrect for me, in the way that don't sound natural. Not for a native speaker. And if you want to be not so formal and use tú then you should use in concordance Disculpa and not Disculpe. The same mistake is in the number 6.
The 3 and 4 are in the same case. But for me, between 3 and 4, 3 sounds better.
Definitively the 5 is the best one. But you should write:
Disculpa, ¿hablas inglés?
When to use tú and when usted is a little bit difficult. In my case, if I talk with a young person or with someone younger than me I'll use tú the most of times. But if is someone older than me automatically I use usted. That could be an empirical rule you can use. Perhaps I'm not so polite because I rarely use explicitly the pronoun usted when I ask something to someone in the street.
A curious fact: in my country, or at least where I live, if you want to know if a native Spanish speaker speaks English just ask him/her in English, if he or she understand you and knows how to answer then you can know it.