3

I think the sentence: La ciudad se renueva constantemente. can be parsed either as a pure reflexive or as a "se"-passive sentence, and this is because the noun phrase "la ciudad" can be understood as a human structure capable of evolving by itself (in which case the reflexive interpretation is more feasible), or as a product of human ...


2

This verb form is not reflexive. True reflexivity implies some action by the subject on itself, but becoming confused is not an action, and the subject of the verb is clearly not doing something to confuse himself; he is just confused or has gotten confused (possibly). It is also not passive (that is, it is not an example of the so-called voz pasiva refleja ...


2

The verb "haber" is merely a perfect tense auxiliary and its use is not in any way related to the sentence being active or passive. We could in fact use a simple tense: a. Me robaron. (I was robbed.) b. Me robaron la cartera. (My wallet was stolen.) Both sentences: Me han robado. Me han robado la cartera. are correct and active, even if they can ...


1

The only case where both indicative and subjunctive are accepted is that in which "es (muy) probable que" is replaced with "(muy) probablemente". However, the subjunctive will sound less probable than the indicative: Es (muy) probable que fueran / hayan sido creados por él. (Muy) Probablemente fueron / fueran/hayan sido creados por él.


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