As you yourself have observed, the verbs are mostly interchangeable (in the strictest sense: the meaning is the same), and the difference is in the frequency of use, which in part has to do with register: volver can be used in colloquial or formal speech, regresar is a bit fancier, retornar is even more refined, formal or literary. (Neither regresar nor ...
It's not 'we'; the 'we' is implied by 'vamos', which is the first person plural form of the verb 'ir' ('to go').
It's 'to', as @Traveller mentions in the comments, so it literally translates as 'To where are we going', but English omits the 'to' here.
In my limited experience, translating 'a' with 'to' works most of the time; for example in a typical ...
In the "official" Diccionario de la Lengua Española (DLE), pronominal versions of verbs (i.e., meanings of the verb that require the use of me, te, se, etc.), are marked with the abbreviation prnl. For example, in the entry for decir:
prnl. Expresar un pensamiento mentalmente, o sin dirigir a otro la palabra. Me dije: esta es la mía.
There are a couple of likely explanations for this. On the one hand, convocar has in fact two possible usage patterns. As the DPD says, it can mean both “call someone to something” or “call for something”. The expression “convocar elecciones” is an example of the latter; here the thing called for (elecciones) is the direct object.
The alternative “convocar a ...
They are related but are not the same:
Acudir entails its hypernym ir, but moreover you go because you know in advance what happens or is gonna happen there: maybe it's an appointment, a public/private service, party or public event.
Asistir prototypical meaning is closer to witness or attend. The verb is frequently used for attending public events or ...
The Ngram Viewer graph provided by OP is very useful to show the degree of occurrence of the these three verbs, volver, regresar, retornar, which are close synonyms as shown by their definitions.
Unlike the others, the verb "volver" can be used in Spanish to mean re-[do] anything, for example:
Volvió a toser (He/She coughed again)
¿Cuándo volverás ...
Differentiating passive from impersonal sentences with "se" is a rather difficult subject. In "Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española" we can read under 41.5.2. Propiedades morfológicas y sintácticas del se impersonal:
18.104.22.168 Las ORACIONES IMPERSONALES REFLEJAS contienen la forma pronominal se y un verbo en singular. Este puede ser ...
There are verbs that can take the indirect object (le / les) without a direct one. For example:
Verbs of emotion and mental process: Le gustas mucho (He/She likes you a lot)
Other verbs in this group are encantar, agradar, parecer, asombrar, molestar, preocupar, interesar, extrañar, importar, enojar
Verbs related to ownership: quedar, faltar, tocar, ...
There is not much difference between:
Él está de compras en una joyería.
Él está comprando joyas en una joyería.
The tense in both sentences is the present indicative. While in (2) the gerund "comprando" forms a verb phrase (perífrasis verbal), in (1) we have a prepositional phrase formed by "de" and the noun "compras".
Gustar is special kind of verb (there is a good handful of others that work the same).
The best way to think of it is: [something] is pleasing to me. The [something] is the subject of the verb, and the person to whom it is pleasing is the object.
The direct object pronouns are me, te, le, nos, os, les.
In the verbal periphrase ir a [infinitivo], the verb ir ...
Just a small clarification re the a used
between a verb and a direct object like: "llamar a la policia."
this is called the personal a and is used when the direct object is a person or possibly a pet. Although in the above example it is correct to translate as "to", typically it is ignored when translating to English eg
No conozco a tu ...
Unless I am missing something, the sentence "Esto la parece mala suerte" is grammatically wrong. The closest correct sentence is
Esto le parece mala suerte
which means "This seems like bad luck to her" (i.e., she thinks that this is bad luck). The verb parecer means "seem", or "look/sound like". The reason why "...
El verbo aplicar con el significado
tr. Emplear, administrar o poner en práctica un conocimiento, medida o principio, a fin de obtener un determinado efecto o rendimiento en alguien o algo.
es un verbo transitivo (tr.). Esto quiere decir que se puede usar o bien en voz activa con un complemento directo:
La empresa no aplica esa regla en esta promoción
La RAE ha indicado en varios lugares que los dos usos son igualmente aceptables. Por ejemplo, en su cuenta de Twitter afirma:
Pregunta: ¿qué tiempo es más correcto utilizar: "Lo he visto" o "lo vi"?
Respuesta: #RAEconsultas Los dos usos son válidos. El pretérito perfecto compuesto es más habitual en gran parte de España, mientras que el ...
Acéptense is the correct form of the imperative of "aceptarse" in formal second person plural (ustedes)1. See a conjugation table of "aceptar" here: the ustedes form of the imperative is the very last entry. You then add the clitic pronoun "se", and add an accent on the first "e" as per the accent placement rules.
Usually (I'm not certain if always though) what is expressed by means of a gerund form inside a prepositional phrase in English, corresponds to the infinitive in Spanish (in prepositional phrase)...
"for the purposes of bettering" → "con el propósito de mejorar"
"for improving my Spanish" → "para mejorar mi español"
I don't agree with your analysis of your English sentence. In the phrase "mostly used in literary contexts", the word "used" is not a past tense. It is present tense, passive voice.
Accordingly, the Spanish would be "se usa" and not what you have.
Has gastado mucho comprando regalos.
Instead, sentence (2):
Has gastado mucho comprar regalos.
is not grammatical.
It could be made grammatical by adding the preposition "en":
Has gastado mucho en comprar regalos.
Sentence (3), though grammatical, is not as idiomatic (or usual) as (1), and could be translated as:
If you look at the conjugation given in the DLE for hacer and look down at the foot of the page for the imperative you will see that the user (User983248) probably comes from a part of the world where voseo is common. If, like me, you learned Spanish elsewhere then this always comes as a shock.
I would’ve expected Joe calls me to be
”Joe me llama”
Exactly. "llamo" is the first person form of the verb. I'm a learner just like you, so I can't tell whether “Joe me llamo” is a grammatically wrong version of "me llamo Joe" or just a very rare word order used for a very specific form of emphasis, but it does not mean ”Joe calls me”.
Verbs that behave like llegar are called unaccusative. They are intransitive verbs whose subject is not an agent but an experiencer. So for example, caer “to fall” is unaccusative because its subject does not act; it just experiences a movement. Many of the se verbs (like levantarse, hundirse, etc.) are unaccusative too; in fact se is often used to turn a ...
The subject of the verb gustar is the thing that is liked, not the person that feels the liking.
I think the confusion stems from the fact that you are involving a verbal periphrasis, i.e. ir a + infinitive, which is used for the future. Go back one step. If you want to say “I like it”, the simplest way is “Me gusta” (this is the present simple tense). The ...
Acudir a, acudieran a => x come to sb (for complaining, for support, for help [go to the police/press])
6. intr. Recurrir a alguien o valerse de él.
Acudir/ir a la fiesta => to go to the party, to attend the party, come to the party, to show up at the party (aparecer, llegar, venir, ir).
2. intr. Ir o asistir con frecuencia a alguna ...
En japonés, el verbo "oku" significa "colocar", "poner en su sitio". Si se combina con un verbo en su forma de "-te", pasa a significar lo que comentas: "hacer algo en previsión de otra cosa", "hacer algo por adelantado", "hacer algo en preparación de otra cosa", etc.
Generalmente, esa ...
In verb phrases formed by a main verb and an infinitive and/or a verb ending in -ando/-endo (present participle), only the main verb is tensed and conjugated.
The only case I can think of where a conjugated verb can be followed by another conjugated verb is that of both verbs referring to different grammatical persons, with the second verb belonging to a ...
Both cuidado and cuidadoso are adjectives with different meanings. Cuidado means "(well) cared for", while cuidadoso means "careful" (although it can also mean "thorough" or "precise"):
Ese edificio es viejo, pero está muy bien cuidado
Es muy cuidadoso en el laboratorio: nunca ha tenido que repetir un experimento
I think the confusion here is that the Spanish definition of "asumir" coincides in a number of situations with "assume" in English, but it definitely does not work both ways. The word "assume" in English is normally translated as "dar por supuesto" or "dar por sentado" in Spanish. They coincide in certain ...
In that particular case, as a Spanish I would see a difference between the two.
"Él está de compras en una joyeria"
I understand he went to a jewelry planning to buy something but he might or not buy it. I guess it will depend on availability of the item, budget,...
However when you say:
"Él está comprando en una joyeria"
In "está de compras", "compras" is not a verb, but a noun. "Compra" means "purchase" when it is a noun.
Think of this other expression "Está de cervezas". "Cervezas" is obviously not a verb here. This means that he is having beers (or other drinks).
Del DLE, hablar:
intr. Dicho de una persona: Comunicarse con otra u otras por medio de palabras.
intr. Tratar de algo por escrito
Decir es un verbo transitivo y no puede usarse en vez de hablar, un verbo intransitivo.
❌Estoy diciendo con él --- ✅Estoy hablando con él
❌Le hablé algo --- ✅Le dije algo