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14

As you yourself have observed, the verbs are mostly interchangeable (in the strictest sense: the meaning is the same), and the difference is in the frequency of use, which in part has to do with register: volver can be used in colloquial or formal speech, regresar is a bit fancier, retornar is even more refined, formal or literary. (Neither regresar nor ...


8

There are a couple of likely explanations for this. On the one hand, convocar has in fact two possible usage patterns. As the DPD says, it can mean both “call someone to something” or “call for something”. The expression “convocar elecciones” is an example of the latter; here the thing called for (elecciones) is the direct object. The alternative “convocar a ...


6

The Ngram Viewer graph provided by OP is very useful to show the degree of occurrence of the these three verbs, volver, regresar, retornar, which are close synonyms as shown by their definitions. Unlike the others, the verb "volver" can be used in Spanish to mean re-[do] anything, for example: Volvió a toser (He/She coughed again) ¿Cuándo volverás ...


3

Both cuidado and cuidadoso are adjectives with different meanings. Cuidado means "(well) cared for", while cuidadoso means "careful" (although it can also mean "thorough" or "precise"): Ese edificio es viejo, pero está muy bien cuidado Es muy cuidadoso en el laboratorio: nunca ha tenido que repetir un experimento ...


2

You got the rules for forming the verb participle correct. The verb participle can be used in several ways, among them as an adjective, in which case it agrees in gender and number with the noun it modifies. But the meaning is still that of a participle. For example, the participle of manchar ("to stain") is manchado ("stained"), so "...


2

Errar es otro. En América es un verbo regular principalmente.


1

Word order in Spanish is quite free (example). Usually, you choose the order based on what you want to emphasize. So ¿Qué estilos/tipos está certificado para enseñar el instructor? or ¿Qué estilos/tipos está certificado el instructor para enseñar? are equally correct. I do not know whether "estilos" or "tipos" is best, because I do ...


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