Well, the first bit is knowing what the different editions are:
1741 Orthographía española
Initial alphabet of 24 letters (ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVXYZ)
U and V considered variations of the same letter
J called i jota, Z called zeta or zeda
Ç rejected as a letter, to be replaced by z
W called walima rejected as a letter, foreign words with it to be ...
Way back in the times of the Latin language, there were two different verbs, but not with the same meaning as today:
sum, es, esse, fui1, meaning "to be" (Spanish: "ser", "estar", "haber"). This was the main copulative verb in old Latin, i.e. it was used to connect two words or clauses. It was used also as an auxiliary verb. We use haber ("to have") as ...
The dative case is commonly known as the grammatical case of indirect objects (the secondary object of ditransitive verbs like dar), and it is marked in Spanish by the use of special pronouns (me, te, le, nos, os, les, se) and its position in the sentence.
The indirect object is an argument of the verb, i.e. it is part of its core syntax. For example, me in «...
Actually it's not a gender reversal but a tradition that survives (inherited from Latin).
The complete rules are intrincate and arbitrary, kind of "well that sounds good to me", full of exceptions and even exceptions to the exceptions (see the variable use with toponyms or the "árbitra" or "árabe" cases). It is used with common names ("El ágata es una ...
This is a stub for the answer. Feel free to collaborate, and remember to add links in case you add information coming from already answered questions.
If you want to go deeper into the roots of ser and estar, check out Etymologically, why do "ser" and "estar" exist? / Etimológicamente, ¿por qué existen "ser" ...
Dictionaries by the Real Academia Española (RAE)
The Diccionario de la lengua española and the Diccionario panhispánico de dudas are both accessible from the main page of the Real Academia Española (RAE) web site.
Diccionario de la lengua española (DLE)
Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (DPD) (2005 edition)
Diccionario de ...
ENGLISH -Spanish follows
Check the RAE on Porqué / porque / por qué / por que for a deep explanation of this. There are several combinations (porque vs. por que as one or two words and then que/qué with or without the accent)
1- You use por qué as two words and with the accents for questions:
¿Por qué es eso así?
Me pregunto por qué Jorge está tan enfadado(...
The Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española is the state-owned public corporation that assumed the indirect management of the Spanish public radio and television service (RTVE). Its web site hosts several Spanish channels being broadcasted live (including La1, La2, Clan, 24h and Teledeporte), and lots of contents on demand (series, ...
The redundant le is only optional if a noun acts as indirect object and that noun is placed after the verb: otherwise, it is mandatory. However, in spoken speech, the redundant le is almost always used.
First a disclaimer: this is actually a complicated topic, which is treated in detail in Section 16.14 of RAE's Nueva gramática de la lengua española, ...
This is a very complex topic!
First, comparing imperfecto and indefinido comes down to the difference between unfinished (that's the technical meaning of "imperfect") actions and completed actions or events.
Pretérito imperfecto, or "imperfect," refers to past events that were not finished in the context; these can be either habitual actions or single ...
All of them are free.
Diccionario de la lengua española by RAE and ASALE
- Android - iOS
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app to help you learn Spanish with game-like lessons
Anki (similar a Memrise)
se basa en tarjetas que contienen una palabra/expresión/oración en un idioma y su traducción a otro idioma. ...
Aquí tienes la conjugación del verbo cantar tal como me la enseñaron en el colegio:
Radio Ambulante - 2014 winner of the Gabriel García Márquez Prize for Innovation in Journalism. Distributed by National Public Radio (US), tells Latin American stories through audio, but the site includes transcripts and translations.
A la aventura - High quality audio. The podcasts are categorized as Classics, Science Fiction, Fantasy, Horror, ...
Películas y programas de TV de España
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TV en español
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Why do ser and estar exist?
They have different roots, in particular the Spanish verb ser has multiple roots:
The infinitive (e.g. ser), the conditionals (e.g. sería) and the future form (e.g. seré) come from the Latin sedēre (present active infinitive of sedeō).
The other forms (e.g. es, fui) come from the Latin esse (present active infinitive of sum) or ...
If a feminine noun begins with a stressed /a/ sound, some* singular articles/determiners:
la, una, alguna, ninguna
take a masculine form if they occur directly before the noun:
el, un, algún, ningún
Nominally this affects all words with stressed initial /a/:
Asia, acta, agua, ala, alga, alma, alza, ama, ancla, ...
En español hay 22 formas verbales:
(Par ver la tabla con snippet: https://meta.stackexchange.com/a/332560/335589.)
5 no personales (por carecer de marcas que señalen persona gramatical) y
17 personales (aquellas cuyas desinencias indican la persona gramatical, además del modo, el tiempo y el número).
Formas no personales: 5 = 2 inf. + 1 part. + 2 ger.
How to learn Spanish
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Agrego las conjugaciones del Voseo (Hablar de Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Centroamérica (desde Chiapas México hasta partes Colombia) y pequeñas zonas en otros países hispanohablantes. Si la conjugación viene después de la diagonal es exclusivo de centroamérica.
The two tenses in your examples are called:
Present perfect (yo he hablado).
Pluperfect (yo había hablado).
The name of the tenses already give us a clue of what they imply: perfect is what the Latin called a situation that had happened in the past, but the consequences of it were already affecting the present. So, the present perfect is used when ...
Your sentences from the movie are examples of what is called "redundancia pronominal" or "reduplicación/doblado de clíticos" ("clitic doubling"): there is an object in the canonical position ("a su novia" in your case) and also a clitic pronoun ("le" in your case) with the same syntactic function. As explained in the Enciclopedia de lingüística hispánica, by ...
I support the answer by Alennano. However, I will write an answer that takes a slightly different point of view, intended to be especially practical and useful for a Spanish learner or a heritage speaker who is unsure about written accent marks:
If you are reading written text and would like to know where to put the stress:
Rule 1. If there is a tilde:
'Agua' is feminine by definition (as RAE explains in El agua, esta agua, mucha agua). The article 'el' is used to avoid stressing of two consecutive identical letters (note that this doesn't happen with all nouns that begin with 'a'). And yes, in this case all Spanish-speaking countries do change the article 'la' for 'el' for the previous reason.
If you want to practice your Spanish writing you could do so on r/WriteStreakES
WriteStreakES is a community where you can write a short text every day and native speakers will correct it for you and tell you what is wrong and why. You can choose your own topic or you can write about fun topics proposed by the moderators every day.
In the same way ...