Something that has helped me to distinguish when to use para and when to use por is the idea of "direction." Use para to indicate that whatever the sentence is saying is directed towards the object of "para".
Tengo este libro para ti. = I have this book for you. (book --> you)
Necesito un lapiz para hacer mi tarea. = I need a ...
If the sentence, as RubioRic rightly suggested, is:
El calpulli lo formaban personas que estaban unidas familiarmente.
"lo" is an obligatory duplicate direct object. This occurs, among other cases, when the direct object is placed before the verb.
The normal word order is:
Personas que estaban unidas familiarmente (I would have said "...
It's not 'we'; the 'we' is implied by 'vamos', which is the first person plural form of the verb 'ir' ('to go').
It's 'to', as @Traveller mentions in the comments, so it literally translates as 'To where are we going', but English omits the 'to' here.
In my limited experience, translating 'a' with 'to' works most of the time; for example in a typical ...
The reason why "por" is not used in:
Llevo estudiando español dos años.
is that "dos años" is the direct object of the verb "llevar" (take), which can be considered more or less equivalent to "ocupar" (occupy, take up) and "pasar" (spend). The sentence can in fact be restated as follows:
Llevo dos años ...
In Spanish the unstressed pronouns (like nos) cannot be placed between a modal verb and an infinitive in constructions like poder + verb, as in Portuguese. They follow the same rules as with single verbs: they have to be placed before a conjugated verb, or after an infinitive or gerund. In this case it could be either "nos puede hacer" or "...
Prepositions are, in my view, the most idiomatic words in the language.
In Spanish, we use:
ir por algo (go for something)
to mean that you go somewhere to look for or get something.
However, if instead of a noun we use a verb, "para" (also "a") will be required:
Fuimos al mercado por pan.
Fuimos al mercado para comprar pan / a comprar ...
Singular "todo" can be an adjective, meaning "every" (or "any"), or a pronoun, meaning "all" or "everything":
Todo pensamiento cuenta (Every thought counts).
Todo cuenta (Everything counts).
"Lo que" is a nominal relative pronoun equivalent to English "what", while "que" is a ...
At least in Spain, "al sol" is the standard collocation to mean "directly illuminated by the Sun", which in English is also said "in the sun". The Diccionario de la Lengua Española (DLE) defines "sol", among others, as (bold emphasis is mine):
m. Estrella luminosa, centro del sistema planetario en que está situada la ...
The first comment is that one never writes "tan mucho" (or "tanto mucho") in Spanish. Comparison of equality ("[so/as] + [adj./adv.] + as") is translated into Spanish as "tan + [adj./adv.] + como", but if one is comparing amounts of nouns ("as [much/many] + noun + as"), one says "[tanto/tanta/tantos/...
As can be read here, adjectives used as adverbs need to be in the masculine and in the singular:
Las golondrinas vuelan bajo.
Las espinacas saben raro.
In the sentences above, the adjectives modify the verbs (fly low, taste strange).
However, adjectives can be used in the predicate to refer to the subject, in which case they are subject complements and ...
According to the Royal Academy of Spanish, your teacher is wrong and the feminine "música" should be used:
músico -ca. ‘Persona que se dedica a la música’. El femenino es música (→ género2, 3a): «La presencia de los jóvenes músicos y músicas de la Orquesta de Cámara Tupay» (Tiempos [Bol.] 11.12.96). No debe emplearse el masculino para referirse a ...
That usage of the preposition "a" is sometimes called a personal (personal "a"). It is used before all indirect objects, and before direct objects that refer to a person. It is never used before the subject of a sentence.
Dale el documento a Juan (indirect object).
No veo a Pablo (direct object that refers to a person).
It is the third person neuter pronoun in English that takes the place of inanimate nouns (amoung other things). Spanish does not have this. The third person nominal pronoun is él, regardless of animacy.
Leí ese libro pero no me acuerdo mucho de él
Lo is the masculine and neuter directo object pronoun. It takes the place of any precedent that is masculine ...
inmunidad is a Latin loanword and has been reanalysed in terms of its prefixes:
in- + mūnus + -is > immunis lat > inmune esp
The prefix in- is rendered:
im- (ante b o p)
i- (ante l o r)
While it would be equally valid to include spelling /m/ as "m" before "m" or "v", the orthographic standard is to ...
Denuncian que criaron a una nena desde bebé y ahora una jueza se las quitó.
no es correcta. Debería ser:
Denuncian que criaron a una nena desde bebé y ahora una jueza se la quitó.
Existe entre muchos hablantes, según DPD de América Latina, una tendencia a pluralizar el complemento directo (aunque el antecedente sea singular) cuando se usa &...
De los tres casos, la opción segunda (2) sería la correcta
Pero ¿y eso cómo se come?
El primer ejemplo es incorrecto en relación a la posición del signo de pregunta, de acuerdo a lo que prescribe la RAE sobre el empleo de los signos de interrogación,
d) Los signos de apertura (¿ ¡) se han de colocar justo donde empieza la pregunta o la exclamación, aunque ...
Differentiating passive from impersonal sentences with "se" is a rather difficult subject. In "Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española" we can read under 41.5.2. Propiedades morfológicas y sintácticas del se impersonal:
184.108.40.206 Las ORACIONES IMPERSONALES REFLEJAS contienen la forma pronominal se y un verbo en singular. Este puede ser ...
There are two ways in which the real subject (el granjero) can be done away with:
Using the passive.
Using the impersonal form.
Within the passive, we have two possible variants in Spanish to say "The six workers were hired":
1.a. The periphrastic passive:
Los seis trabajadores fueron contratados por una semana.
1.b. The "se" passive:...
There are verbs that can take the indirect object (le / les) without a direct one. For example:
Verbs of emotion and mental process: Le gustas mucho (He/She likes you a lot)
Other verbs in this group are encantar, agradar, parecer, asombrar, molestar, preocupar, interesar, extrañar, importar, enojar
Verbs related to ownership: quedar, faltar, tocar, ...
There is not much difference between:
Él está de compras en una joyería.
Él está comprando joyas en una joyería.
The tense in both sentences is the present indicative. While in (2) the gerund "comprando" forms a verb phrase (perífrasis verbal), in (1) we have a prepositional phrase formed by "de" and the noun "compras".
A very tricky question indeed.
Let me translate your sentences to English so you can observe the difference.
¿Qué has perdido? / What have you lost?
¿Que has perdido qué? / You have lost what!?
Notice that in the Spanish version, only the second qué has the accent mark indicating that it is a pronoun instead of a conjuction.
To ask about what has been lost,...
Gustar is special kind of verb (there is a good handful of others that work the same).
The best way to think of it is: [something] is pleasing to me. The [something] is the subject of the verb, and the person to whom it is pleasing is the object.
The direct object pronouns are me, te, le, nos, os, les.
In the verbal periphrase ir a [infinitivo], the verb ir ...
Just a small clarification re the a used
between a verb and a direct object like: "llamar a la policia."
this is called the personal a and is used when the direct object is a person or possibly a pet. Although in the above example it is correct to translate as "to", typically it is ignored when translating to English eg
No conozco a tu ...
RAE explains this here:
Los adverbios nunca, jamás, tampoco, los indefinidos nadie, nada, ninguno, la locución en la/mi/tu/su vida y los grupos que contienen la palabra ni aparecen siempre en oraciones de sentido negativo. Si estos elementos van antepuestos al verbo, este no va acompañado del adverbio de negación no: Nunca voy al teatro [...]. Pero si van ...
It is not exactly the same structure as "gustar". The "le" in your sentence is a dative of interest. The verb "acaban" is in third person plural because the subject is an unspecified third person, as explained here. The translation of the sentence
A nuestro vecino le acaban de instalar aire acondicionado en su casa
As @user0721090601 said in the comment above, the infinitive can be freely used instead of the imperative when an impersonal form of addressing people is allowed, i.e. not in a conversation. Signage is the typical case where the infinitive will be allowed and usually used. Instructions is another case.
The imperative is always personal and can be singular or ...
The neuter demonstrative "esto" (as well as "eso" and "aquello") is used to refer to something that is not defined (this thing, that thing) or to a situation:
Esto (que tiene un chasis y cuatro ruedas) es un carro. (This object, with a body and four wheels, is a car.)
Esto es un desastre. (This is a disaster.)
The neuter form ...
As pointed by @brazofuerte and @Joseph_Jaroslav, the sentence is not using the word ser as a verb but as a noun. You can check the DLE and found two different meanings marked respectively with the superindexes 1 (verb) and 2 (noun).
You have also noticed a similar situation with the word being in English that can be a gerund or a noun as well depending on ...
Unless I am missing something, the sentence "Esto la parece mala suerte" is grammatically wrong. The closest correct sentence is
Esto le parece mala suerte
which means "This seems like bad luck to her" (i.e., she thinks that this is bad luck). The verb parecer means "seem", or "look/sound like". The reason why "...