To mirror the effect of the original "sh*t or bust", I think it is important to use a similarly disjunctive construction, with "o ... o" (either ... or).
I imagine somebody in that situation saying something like:
Con esta o me consagro o me entierro (literally: I become either a hero o a dead man).
(With this, either I rise to fame or ...
There's a couple of options you can use, but they do not include a swear word, they are quite harmless to use:
Jugársela a todo o nada.
This includes the use of jugarse as 'to risk'. It explicit meaning is 'to take a big risk in order to success or completely fail'. You can also use this similar sentence:
Jugarse el todo por el todo.
I can't think now of ...