I don't know if "culturally literate" is the appropriate term here, but it was the first phrasing that came to my mind.
Can some native Spanish speakers give some movies, books, music, poems, etc. that you might consider to be requirements to be "culturally literate" in your respective countries or even just simply in your own opinion. These would be parts of your culture from which the average person would understand references, jokes, etc. For example, I am from the Midwest of the USA. I might answer this with "The Wizard of Oz," "ET," "Babe," most books by Dr. Seuss, most songs by Queen, the poem "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost (although it's usually misunderstood), Sesame Street, Mister Roger's Neighborhood, etc.
I guess I am thinking of this in the context of, if I were to watch a game show, comedy skit, old TV series, what are common things in your culture that may be referenced of which I would have to had read, heard, etc. in order to understand the reference?