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El primer artículo del libro gira en torno al doble desafío que abre la contemporaneidad en el espacio hispanoamericano: las revoluciones e independencias.

  1. Is desafío the antecedent of que abre la contemporaneidad en el espacio hispanoamericano?
  2. If the correct translation is "that the Modern era opens up" or "that opens up the Modern era", why is it correct?
  3. And can anyone cite a Spanish resource that helps a person answer a question such as the above question?

The subject sentence comes from a user who did not cite his/her source.

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I understand "contemporaneidad" to mean "Edad Contemporánea", which is the era between the French Revolution and now. This is not a standard use of the word "contemporaneidad", but is sometimes seen.

I understand "abre la contemporaneidad" as "marks the beginning of the Contemporary Era", based on the 16th definition of abrir:

  1. tr. Comenzar ciertas cosas o darles principio, inaugurar.

Therefore, I understand the sentence as

  • The first chapter of the book is about the double challenge that marks the beginning of the Contemporary Era in Latin America: the revolutions and the independence declarations.

So desafío is indeed the antecedent of que abre la contemporaneidad en el espacio hispanoamericano.

Regarding your third question, the DLE is a good dictionary to find obscure (and not obscure) meanings of words. I would not know which other source to recommend in this case, though I agree that the sentence is complicated because it uses some not very standard meanings of words.

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  • You have provided something worth thinking about, and I thank you for doing so. – user326251 Dec 4 '20 at 21:10
  • <<The first chapter of the book is about the double challenge that marks the beginning of the Contemporary Era in Latin America: the revolutions and the independence declarations.>> Then the subject of the relative clause is the word "that"? – user326251 Dec 5 '20 at 13:20
  • Yes, from what I learned about syntax, the subject of the clause "que abre la contemporaneidad en el espacio hispanoamericano" is the relative pronoun "que". I assume it should be the same in the English version. – wimi Dec 5 '20 at 13:50
  • Is "que abre la contemporaneidad en el espacio hispanoamericano" a restrictive or non-restrictive clause? – user326251 Dec 5 '20 at 15:27
  • @user326251 I would say restrictive, as it narrows down which challenge we are talking about. Removing that clause would make the sentence too ambiguous. – wimi Dec 7 '20 at 9:26

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