In the text below, which is a slightly edited translation from a Brazilian Portuguese text using Google Translate, can both expressions "lo que nos causó" and "lo que nos ha causado" be used? Or, as a broader question, does this translation make any sense at all?

A partir de ahora intentemos ser más amables y educados. Ofensas y agresiones tú bien sabes lo que nos causó / lo que nos ha causado.

Thanks in advance.

1 Answer 1


The sentence:

Ofensas y agresiones tú bien sabes lo que nos causó / lo que nos ha causado.

is ungrammatical for two reasons:

  1. We don't usually use the zero article for nouns in subject position.

  2. There is no agreement between plural "ofensas y agresiones" and the verb in the singular (either "causó" or "ha causado").

To better understand the sentence, which is a clear case of hyperbaton used for emphasis, we can reorder it as follows:

  • Tú bien sabes lo que las ofensas y (las) agresiones nos causaron / han causado.

In line with (1) above, the subject "las ofensas y (las) agresiones" needs to have a determiner, in this case, the definite article, and in line with (2), the verb has to be in the plural form.

Both "causaron" and "han causado" are correct.

  • 1
    Thanks a lot for the amazing explanation, it really makes sense. And also thanks for the tip on the use of hyperbaton. Really helpful.
    – Itamar
    Dec 1, 2020 at 2:43

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