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The phrase in question appears near the end of the poem. A miracle affects the two protagonists so intensely that they both immediately decide to abandon the world and enter the religious life.

Las vanidades del mundo
renunció allí mismo Inés,
y espantado de sí propio,
Diego Martínez también.

I'm not sure how to interpret espantado de sí propio, as this usage of de sí propio appears to be antiquated or poetic. Possibilities that occur to me are "appalled at himself," "terrified by his own actions," and "fearing for his own life."

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  • Mirando en Google Ngram, sí propio parece un equivalente culto a sí mismo que cayó en desuso. Yo no recuerdo haberlo visto antes (pero disto mucho de ser experto en ningún idioma). Aug 27 '20 at 20:01
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You are right that the wording is poetic. "Espantado de sí propio" literally means "spooked by his own self" and it most probably refers to being terrified by his own actions or past life as you said.

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