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Reading an article in El Pais I see a headline

Madrid pedirá una declaración jurada a las personas que estén en la calle donde expliquen su destino

Looking in the DLE for enlightenment I find only one definition for jurado as an adjective

  1. adj. Que ha prestado juramento al encargarse del desempeño de su función u oficio.

and searching for jurar I find three definitions which might be relevant

  1. tr. Afirmar o negar algo, poniendo por testigo a Dios, o en sí mismo o en sus criaturas.

  2. tr. Reconocer solemnemente, y con juramento de fidelidad y obediencia, la soberanía de un príncipe.

  3. tr. Someterse solemnemente y con igual juramento a los preceptos constitucionales de un país, estatutos de las órdenes religiosas, graves deberes de determinados cargos

So the first of these is about what I would call in English swearing an oath, and the other two look like swearing allegiance.

As I understand it though the citizens will be obliged to have with them a piece of paper which they have filled out to show to police or other authorities if stopped. I cannot really see any way they can swear on it though, they are hardly being encouraged to find a notary for that purpose.

So my question is: what does jurado mean here?

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    sworn statement, or a statement made under oath. Means they can be criminally prosecuted if found to be lying (cf. perjury) – user0721090601 Mar 22 at 15:36
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    @user0721090601 It wouldn't be perjury according to the Spanish penal code, as only witnesses before a court can commit perjury. It can't be punished as "falsedad documental", either, as lying in a document ("falsedad ideológica") is only a crime when a civil servant or authority does it. I don't think it can possibly be a crime at all, since that would be akin to forcing self-incrimination. – OnlyThenDidIReckonMyCurse Mar 22 at 15:47
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    "declaración jurada" can be translated as "sworn statement" or "affidavit". The person need not swear before a notary or a judicial officer for the statement to be valid and enforceable. – Gustavson Mar 22 at 15:53
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    @OnlyThenDidIReckonMyCurse I didn't say it was perjury. (cf means compare to) – user0721090601 Mar 22 at 17:35
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    @OnlyThenDidIReckonMyCurse «Las sanciones por incumplir las restricciones de movilidad impuestas en el marco del estado de alarma oscilan entre los 100 y los 600.000 euros, si bien, merced a esta pretensión del Consistorio madrileño, determinadas conductas pueden acabar, además, ante el juez por un delito de falsedad, al margen de la multa por desobediencia que tipifica la Ley de Seguridad Ciudadana» – user0721090601 Mar 22 at 18:01
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Diccionario del español jurídico

declaración jurada

Sublema de declaración

Gral. Manifestación personal verbal o escrita., donde se asegura la veracidad de lo declarado bajo juramento ante autoridades administrativas o judiciales. Se presume como cierto lo que se declara mientras no se acredite lo contrario.

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  • just add a little bit more, if you don't tell the truth in a 'declaración jurada' is a crime called 'perjurio', it is considered as if you lied in court, it is about that severity – Iria Mar 23 at 9:28
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A Declaración jurada corresponds in English to an affidavit.

I have translated the definition given at Wikipedia in Spanish:

It is a written or verbal manifestation whose veracity is guaranteed by an oath before a judicial or administrative authority. This causes the content of the statement to be taken as true until proven otherwise.

You can read the definition in English at Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affidavit

So jurada means "something attested by a jury or someone with the power of law to do it".

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It is here what is called in French une déclaration sur l'honneur.

It is a dated and signed statement in which you undertake to tell the truth. Unlike an affidavit, there is no authority backing it but if a police officer discover you lied, you can be in trouble for breaking the estado de alarma rules:

Artículo 20. Régimen sancionador. El incumplimiento o la resistencia a las órdenes de las autoridades competentes en el estado de alarma será sancionado con arreglo a las leyes, en los términos establecidos en el artículo diez de la Ley Orgánica 4/1981, de 1 de junio.

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