Many adjectives can be used in Spanish as nouns as they are, with no changes. Here's one example: the adjective listo means "clever", as in "es un niño muy listo" ("he's a very clever boy"), but you can use it as a noun and then the meaning changes slightly, as in a famous blog we sometimes refer here:
Ya está el listo que todo lo sabe.
In that case the meaning is more similar to that of "clever clogs". But in many cases the meaning does not change. Take sevillano ("born in Seville, Spain" or "related to Seville") as an example: you can say "yo nací en tierras sevillanas" (used as an adjective) or just "yo soy un sevillano" (used as a noun).
But then, there are many ways to form noun from adjectives, creating new, different words. Let's see which ones there are:
- -dad / -edad / -idad / -bilidad: Forms abstract nouns from adjectives. Depeding on the adjective ending or the syllable count you must use one form or another: mocedad, terquedad, suciedad, barbaridad, efectividad, liviandad, maldad, culpabilidad.
- -ería: Indicates the quality and condition of the root word. Example: tontería.
- -ez: Indicates the quality of the root adjective. Examples: altivez, lucidez, idiotez, madurez.
- -ía: Forms nouns meaning situation, mind state, social condition and others. Examples: cercanía, lejanía, alegría, hidalguía, villanía. Also with the meaning of "something disqualifiable": grosería, majadería.
- -ismo: It forms nouns from almost every kind of word, also from adjectives. Examples: analfabetismo (from "analfabeto"), modernismo (from "moderno").
- -ncia: Another way to form abstract nouns. Examples: impaciencia (from "impaciente"), extravagancia (from "extravagante").
- -ón: It may form nouns derivated from adjectives with a superlative meaning. Example: inocentón.
- -ura: Another way to indicate the quality of the root word: Examples: blancura, bravura, frescura.
Unfortunately, there is no small subset of suffixes you may learn to create every noun. For instance, you say blancura to convey the meaning of "whiteness", but you don't say blanqueza even though you can speak with franqueza but not with francura. You may think that this is a barbaridad but probably you won't think this is a barbarencia. And if you think it's silly to have this many suffixes you will say that it is a tontería and an idiotez, but not a tonterez neither an idiotería.