What is the role of 'le' in the sentence:
¿Cómo le va?
And the role of 'te' in '¿Cómo te va?'
What is the role of 'le' and 'te' in the sentences like:
¿Qué te pasa?
¿Qué le pasa?
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They are indirect objects. You can think of them like this:
¿Cómo le/te va? How is life treating you?
¿Qué le/te pasa? What's new with you?/What's wrong with you?/What's happening to you?
Le is formal, te is informal. That is, "le" corresponds to usted and te corresponds to tú.
Here is a chart showing subject pronouns and their corresponding indirect object pronouns:
First person: yo, me
Second person informal: tú, te
Second person formal: usted, le
Third person: él/ella, le
First person: nosotros, nos
Second person formal: ustedes, les
Second person informal: vosotros, os (in Spain)
Second person informal: ustedes, les (in Latin America)
Third person: ellos/ellas, les
An indirect object is something affected by the verb, but not directly acted on by the verb. For example, She told me a secret -- "me" is the indirect object.
Indirect objects in Spanish are similar to English, but not exactly the same. If you want to learn more about this topic, see All about datives, or: What's that funny "le" or "me" doing in there?.
objeto indirecto , indirect object or complement in all of the cases,