"I am going nowhere" and "I don't go anywhere" both translate to "No voy a ningún lugar" as they basically mean the same thing. But there is is a change in emphasis between the two (reference: https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/147931/i-am-going-nowhere-or-i-am-not-going-anywhere). Is there a way to capture that difference in a Spanish translation? Maybe by putting emphasis on a particular word, and if so which word(s)?
Possible ways to say this in Spanish are
- No me voy a ningún lado.
- No me voy a ninguna parte.
Generally one would use the "reflexive" pronoun because if the idea is deciding to leave a place, the preferred verb is pronominal irse, not basic ir. Note ningún ("not any") before a masculine noun, not ninguno ("not one").
An emphatic way of saying this would be
- No me voy nada.
- No me voy nada a ningún lado. (or ...a ninguna parte)
You can also emphasize the place:
- De aquí no me voy. (or De acá... depending on dialect)
This would be appropriate if you're being invited to leave a place and you want to stand your ground and sound really angry. There are surely other ways to express this in different dialects.
I don't really understand the difference in English, but in any case there's no way to translate directly into Spanish.
"I am going nowhere" has a special meaning, which expresses despondency. This could be expressed in Spanish as
No llego a nada. [I'm not getting anywhere.]
No soy nadie. [I'm a nobody.]
The answer more generally, such as "I don't know anyone" / "I know no one," which you included in an explanatory comment:
In Spanish, they would both become *No conozco a nadie" or "No conozco a ninguno."
This is a case where there is not a unique, one to one correspondence between the two languages.