If I threw a snowball (or dodgeball) at someone and it hit them, how would I say :
I got you!
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I am pretty sure that there will be differences depending on the country.
In Mexico you would say "¡Te di!" specifically to say if you hit someone with a snowball or when playing dodgeball.
Just for the sake of completing the answer based on the other discussions. I believe, and this is my personal opinion since this is not a common phrase for Mexico, that "te pillé" is more accurate when you find someone as when playing hide and seek for which in my country you would say "te encontré".
As Alexis says, a good translation to that could be "¡Te pillé!", but I don't really picture myself saying that when hitting someone with a snowball. More like when playing "el pillar" (the tag game), "escondite" (hide-and-seek) or the like.
Alternatively, you could say "¡Toma eso!", which roughly means "Take that!", or perhaps "¡Chúpate esa!", which could be translated to "Eat that!" or "Bite the dust!". But these are arguably harsher things to say to a young girl :-)
[DISCLAIMER : I'm not a native speaker, so even though I've been living for 10 years in Spain, there sure are better translations.]
I would say
¡Te he pillado!
However, I'm not sure that:
Like many have said before, "¡Te pillé!" is the most formal translation; but it does sound quite off in many latin american countries (where the verb pillar is not at all used).
Perhaps you could use a more broad: "¡Te atiné!" which is more akin to I hit the mark but manages to be a more neutral translation.