Does Spanish allow post-head emotive modifiers such as ¿Qué coño? ¿Qué mierda? and ¿Qué cojones? after interrogative words in all cases?
Specifically is it possible when cual / que are followed by a noun, as in qué cojones lapiz rompiste?
I would say this kind of emphasis is only possible in a couple borderline cases.
First, the syntax. In sentences like
there's a free slot right after the interrogative word, that can be filled with a short expletive. This sounds natural in questions with qué because qué can also be followed by a noun phrase. It's not the same, because the expletive doesn't have to agree with the verb (in ¿Qué cojones te pasa? the expletive is plural but the verb is in the singular), but it sounds a bit like that.
An expletive can also be inserted after other interrogatives, like dónde or cómo; in those cases its function is clear: it's basically a verbal exclamation point. It doesn't agree with anything, it's just something you drop there somewhere.
One borderline case is qué mierda de + noun. One could maybe say mierda de is an expletive.
Mierda de + noun is an expletive in the sense that it emphasizes the whole sentence. Note the difference with the reversed pattern noun + de mierda:
In the first two sentences you are mainly expressing shock or disbelief while also disqualifying the food or the school; in the last two you are actually asking about the food or the school. In English you'd translate both of these, I think, as "What kind of shitty (whatever)...?".
I'd say puto/a is another borderline case in questions like
Here you have a regular adjective agreeing with the noun it modifies, but at the same time it works like a true expletive: it doesn't mean anything, it just emphasizes the point of the whole question.
I don't think there are many more possible examples, but it depends on dialect, I guess.