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I am not looking for the verb "to be". At least not as an entire answer. I want to understand how Spanish speakers talk about their "self" and who they are. I want to know words that accentuate conversations about "self" and "being" in the Spanish language. In English I learned, "Me, myself, and I". There is the famous quote, "To be, or not to be". These are powerful concepts that I find elusive in the Spanish language. Also, I learned from psychology the concepts of Id, ego, and superego, as well as conscious, subconscious, and super-conscious.

How do Spanish speakers discuss the concepts of "self" and "being" from a philosophical and psychological perspective?

How do Spanish speakers discuss WHO they are?

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You can use the personal pronoun yo as a noun in philosophical contexts. Check out its definition in the DLE:

yo

  1. pron. person. 1.ª pers. m. y f. sing. Forma que, en nominativo, designa a la persona que habla o escribe. Yo estoy muy tranquila.

  2. m. Fil. Sujeto humano en cuanto persona. El yo. Mi yo.

  3. m. Psicol. Parte consciente del individuo, mediante la cual cada persona se hace cargo de su propia identidad y de sus relaciones con el medio.

The second and third entries state that the word is used as a noun (el yo, mi yo). See the following examples:

Existe una "despolitización" radical, antropológica, por el hecho de que "el yo" como conciencia total está dejando de ser el centro de imputación de las actitudes políticas.

Porque por no perderlo ya que sacrifiqué lo que para mí valía más, mi yo, mi alma, mi existencia, quizá hasta el cariño tuyo...

You can also use the verb ser as a noun:

ser2

  1. m. Esencia o naturaleza.

Example:

Pero, aparte de este realismo trascendente, defendían otros un realismo inmanente: los universales existían como tales universales en la naturaleza de las cosas; más aún, las cosas son tanto más reales cuanto más universales; de modo que el universal máximo, que es el ser, es el fundamento y raíz de toda realidad.

And finally the Freudian concepts of "id, ego and superego" are expressed in Spanish as "el ello, el yo y el superyó". Check this Spanish Wikipedia entry. You can also use the words ego and superego in Spanish.

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