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Please can someone confirm if this understanding is correct?

Both of the following sentences are correct. The distinction is that the first sentence grammatically says "at this moment you are a naughty girl" whereas the second is says "you are a naughty kind of girl".

  1. Tú estás una chica traviesa

  2. Tú eres una chica traviesa

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The distinction is that the first sentence grammatically says "at this moment you are a naughty girl" This is incorrect.

What you mean happens in this example: you see the girl all "dolled up" in her prom dress or something like that. Then, you could say

[Tú] Estás preciosa [con ese vestido] You look beautiful in that dress/ the dress makes you beautiful

[Tú] Eres preciosa You are beautiful - and the dress just remarks that

In your particular case

Tú eres una chica traviesa

indeed means "you are naughty", like in "that's inherent to you", but

estás una chica traviesa

is plain wrong (it's a "word by word" translation, not a translation of the intended meaning). You would say

estás traviesa hoy/esta mañana/en este momento

like

estás preciosa con ese vestido/con el pelo recogido/esta mañana

You are translating literally "you are a naughty girl today" and that doesn't work in Spanish with "estar" because you'll say that someone "está traviesa/hermosa" but you don't say that someone "está una chica".

So you can say that someone "es una chica + adj", because that's inherent to them or a quality or a personality trait.

You cannot say someone "está una chica + adj", because "ella es una chica", and you could add that "ella es una chica hermosa, traviesa o alta, que puede estar más o menos -insert adjective here- en un momento dado".

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