Let's say I want to say:
I don't want the bank to send ads to my family.
In this the correct translation?
No quiero que el banco envíe anuncios a mi familia.
If so, why
envíe being subjunctive form? Why not
envía -- present tense form?
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The subjunctive is one of several moods, along with the indicative, imperative and conditional. The present is one of several tenses. Envíe is present tense, subjunctive mood, third person singular.
The subjunctive appears in many different contexts. One of them is in subordinate sentences (marked by que) whose main verb is querer. This also happens with desear "to wish" and other verbs like gustar, that express wishes or (dis)likes. It doesn't depend on whether the sentence is affirmative or negative:
Quiero que me envíes un regalo. "I want you to send me a gift."
No quiero que gastes mucho dinero. "I don't want you to spend a lot of money."
For other verbs the subjunctive is optional, or only used in negations, or it follows other rules that I can't summarize here.