No, you can't say that, because it's ungrammatical, and also because it's unnecessary, since the sentence is not ambiguous. Mi camisa means "my shirt", no ambiguity possible.
It is true that you can say de + pronoun to emphasize the possessor of an item (as in la camisa de ella), but in fact this is only ever done in the third person, either in the singular or the plural, and in both genders: de él, de ellos, de ella, de ellas.
Also note that the full third person personal pronouns are particular in a sense: they are the same when they act as the subject of a sentence and when they act as an object. When following a preposition (like de or para), you have to use pronouns in their object form. Since ella is the same as a subject and as an object, you don't notice any change here.
The same happens to the other plural pronoun: nosotros, vosotros and ustedes also remain the same when following prepositions.
But the other pronouns are not like this: for example, yo works as a subject, but as an object you must use mí; and tú changes to ti. So you would never say *de yo. You could say de mí, but as I said before, that's never done in this particular sense (when talking of something you possess).⁽¹⁾
This is not all that different from English. In English you don't say *"this belongs to I", but "this belongs to me", using the object pronoun me instead of the subject pronoun yo. Of course, in English you also have different object forms for the third person (him, her, them).
If you want to emphasize possession, outside the third person, you instead use the full possessive pronoun, in the appropriate number and gender: la camisa mía.
You can also do this in the third person, but not to resolve the ambiguity: instead of la camisa de ella you can equally well say la camisa suya, but suya is totally ambiguous (it might mean "his", "her" or "their").
⁽¹⁾ You can say de mí in other cases (NGLE 18.4), typically when de + pronoun is a complement of certain verbs («¿Te acuerdas de mí?», «No te alejes de mí.», etc.), and also when you want to emphasize even more: de mí mismo, lit. "of me myself".