In many universities in the US, students choose a primary specialty to study (called their "major") and optionally a secondary emphasis (called a "minor"). How would these terms be expressed in Spanish when referring to a US education? And do universities in Spanish-speaking countries have the same major/minor structure?
I asked this same question of my Spanish teacher who spent significant amounts of time in Spain (was married to a Spaniard and spent summers there.) His suggestion was to refer to the major as "especialización" and minor as "subespecialización". These are the best descriptions I've heard for describing the US system of study in Spanish terms.
In Colombia (and in most Latin American countries) there are no such structures in undergraduate education. Therefore, "major" and "minor" are words used only to speak about the US educational system.
Instead, in most Latin American countries we have a system that differentiates between "professional" and "technical" education (educación profesional y educación técnica o tecnológica). A professional degree is better than a technical degree. The former is taught at universities and has a duration of four to five years. The latter is taught at "Institutos Técnicos" and usually has a duration of two to three years.
There are some similarities between major and professional degrees, and between minor and technical degrees, but our education systems are different from yours in many ways.
If you are talking about education you must be careful to refer to a specific country (e.g., Perú, Mexico, or Brasil), and conduct research about the specific names that are used there to refer to their specific structures in education. A Wikipedia search is often enough.