- What's the origin/etymology of these words? The only one that I know and it is common is
- Are there any others recognized by the RAE?
"Reloj" originally comes from latin "horologium".
I've read that the "j" ending is a result of Catalan "relotge".
I can think of another word ending in "j", "carcaj" which means "quiver", as in the container used to carry arrows. Apparently this comes from French "carcais".
In this website they list some words ending in "j" although I would say only "reloj" and "carcaj" are actually used.
There are few words in Spanish that end with "J", and some of them are derivations of foreign origin: reloj (Greek "ωρολογιον"), boj (Catalan "boix"), carcaj (Greek "καρκάσιον"). There are other rarely used examples.
One thing you should keep in mind: the pronunciation of the letter "J" has changed through the passage of time. These are the phonetic representations of "J" in Spanish:
- medieval Spanish => /ž/
- during XV century => /š/
- from XVI - XVIII century => /x/ (south) /š/ (rest of the Iberian peninsula)
- since XIX century => /x/
But there are also regional differences and it isn't uncommon to find places where it sounds like an aspirated "h" or /h/.
In Spanish the word "reloj" was originally "reloje" or "reloxe", but later the "e" was dropped and the words "reloj" or "relox" appeared.
Another example of two words that still coexist is the name "Jimena", that is often found as "Ximena", towns like "Xixona" or "Jijona" (the first in Valencian), etc.
There are fewer than 30 words ending in -j in Spanish, most of which were inherited from Arabic at a time when j in Spanish represented
/ʃ/ (i.e. the English sound 'sh'). The rest come from a variety of different origins:
- alioj ← Hisp. Arabic yašb ← Aramaic yašpe ← Acadian [j]ašpū ("jaspe")
- almiraj ← Arabic المعراج (mi'raj)
- almofrej ← Arabic ﺍﻞﻣﻔﺭﺺ (almafráš)
- almoraduj (alt. almoradux) ← Hisp. Arabic almarda[d]dúš ← Arabic marzanǧūš ← Greek ἀμάρακος
- erraj (alt. herraj) ← Hisp. Arabic ﺍﺭﻎ (arráhǧ, "polvo")
- balaj (alt. balaje) ← Arabic ﺑﻠﺨﺸﻲ (balaẖš ← balaẖšī, "badajshaní")
- borraj (alt. bórax) ← Arabic ﺑﻭﺭﻖ (bawraq) ← Persian bure
- cambuj (alt. gambuj, gambux, gambox) ← Hisp. Arabic ﻛﻨﺒﺶ (kanbúš, "capuchón") ← Late Latin caputium
Latin and apocopy of Old Spanish verbs
- dij (alt. dije) ←? Latin dĭgĭtus
- relej (alt. releje) ← relejar
- rebalaj (alt. rebalaje) ← resbalar
- pedicoj ← Latin pes, pedis ("pie") + cojo
- maniblaj ?
French and Gothic
- troj (alt. troja, troje) ←? Gothic thraughs ("arca")
- carcaj (alt. carcax) ← Old French carcais ← Byzantine Greek καρκάσιον (karkásion)
- gambaj (alt. gambax) ← Old French gambais ← Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐌼𐌱𐌰 (wamba, "vientre")
Catalan and Aragonese
- boj (alt. boje) ← box ← Catalan/Aragonese boix ← Latin buxus2
- reloj, contrarreloj ← Old Catalan relotge ← orollotge ← Latin hōrologium ← Ancient Greek ὡρολόγιον (hōrológion)3 4
Foreign religious terms
- Aj ← Egyptian Ꜣḫ (Akh)
- sij ← English Sikh ← Punjabi ਸਿੱਖ (sikkh) ← Sanskrit šisya1
- Pésaj ← Hebrew פֶּסַח (pésach, "salto")
All of these (with the exception of Aj, almiraj, gambaj, rebalaj, Pésaj, and puaj) have entries in the RAE, and 11 of them have alternate forms with a terminal -je or -x.
The RAE introduced this orthography by analogy with other transliterations of the group kh, corresponding to words of Slavic origin so transcribed in English. However, in Punjabi the sound of the word does not correspond to
/x/, being on the contrary much closer to
/k/, and the choice is therefore deceptive and unjustified etymologically; Much more reasonable alternatives are sik or simply sikh.
ix is pronounced
/ʃ/in (Eastern) Catalan, and when this word was first loaned to Spanish the letter j represented the same sound.
The current form of the word may partly be a back-formation of relojes, plural of obsolete reloje, which better conforms with the Catalan source and would explain the final "j", which is rare in Spanish.
• follaje from Occitan follatge
• peaje from Catalan peatge or French péage
• lenguage from Old Spanish lenguage, borrowed from Old French language or Old Occitan lenguatge, lengaje
• metraje, fuselaje, sabotaje, paisaje from French métrage, fuselage, paysage (comp. Catalan paisatge)