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Question

What do the pronombres relativos refer to in the sentence and what are the clues? Also please help to correct the translation.

Sentence

Al interpretar las obras, en muchos casos es necesario repetir trozos ya ejecutados, lo cual se indica por medio de señales o signos, siendo los principales los que se indican a continuación, sobre los cuales y para mejor distinguirlos colocamos una crucecita.

Translation

To interpret the music, in many things it is necessary to repeat the music chart we just played, (la cual: la = repeat?) which is indicated by signal or signs, (siendo: subject of 'ser' are signo/señales?), being the main signs which indicate to continue, (sobre los cuales: los = signo/señales?) over those signs and to better distinguish them, we place a cross.

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    "La cual" doesn't match and should be "lo cual": the original typography doesn't help a lot. Your understanding is right: it refers to the need to repeat, so a "which" is enough – Rafael Jul 30 '17 at 13:21
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The sentence in your music book:

Al interpretar las obras, en muchos casos es necesario repetir trozos ya ejecutados, lo cual se indica por medio de señales o signos, siendo los principales los que se indican a continuación, sobre los cuales y para mejor distinguirlos colocamos una crucecita.

"lo cual se indica" -- here, "lo cual" refers to the whole phrase ("repetir trozos ya ejecutados").

The part that starts with "siendo" means: the principal [most important] of these being etc.

"Sobre los cuales etc." means "above which, and in order to make more of a distinction, we put a small cross." It modifies "los que se indican a continuación."

Not a well written sentence. It reminds me of spaghetti code.

Here is what it means in a loose translation, which I include here assuming you are a music student and would like to capture the basic idea of the paragraph:

When interpreting music, it is often necessary to repeat a figure, and this is indicated through special symbols, the most common of which are shown below, with a cross above each one, to make them easier to recognize.

I assume you are also a student of Spanish and needed some help hacking your way through what is rather a jungle of a sentence.

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the thing is that "lo cual" should be trated as a block, since the article is essential to know the gender, and consequently to know what "cual" refers to. In fact, the word "cual" alone does not make sense with this meaning.

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