I'm beginning to learn Spanish, and one of the sentences I'm learning is
Me quedo en mi casa
Which means "I stay at home". So, if the "quedo" is conjugated for yo and not for me, like in "me gusta", why is it "me quedo"?
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Good question, glad you asked. There are several things to clear up.
Bonus tip: "Me quedo en casa" would be more elegant still. Kind of like in English, "at home" is enough -- you don't need to say "at my home."
The main meaning of quedar (to stay, to remain) is usually pronominal in Spanish, as others have said. You can sometimes use it in non-pronominal form, but it is a fairly formal use. For instance, a usual ending for a formal letter is:
Quedo a la espera de sus noticias.
Meaning I remain in wait for your answer, more or less. Or it can take a somewhat euphemistical meaning:
Quedó inválido a causa de sus heridas.
Meaning he was disabled due to his injuries.
However, the verb quedar has a non-pronominal use, more coloquial, which is to agree, specially to agree on a meeting. This way:
He quedado con Juan.
Would not mean I have stayed with Juan, but I have agreed to meet Juan. If we go to your example:
Me quedo en mi casa.
means I stay at home; but:
Quedo en mi casa.
would mean I usually meet with my friends at home. As you can see, the meaning is quite different.
Because "me" is not the subject of the phrase, and as you guessed correctly "Yo" is the actual subject, the full phrase would be:
Yo me quedo en mi casa
The thing is in Spanish we often omit the subject.
Also, this is not part of the main question, but be careful with your example "me gusta". "Me" is not the subject in this phrase, in fact it is a common mistake even among people whose first language is Spanish.
In a full sentence: "Me gusta el pollo", "el pollo" is the subject.
A common example to illustrate this is to pluralize "el pollo":
Me gustan los pollos
This might be an informal answer but I hope it is nevertheless useful. (Spanish is my first language, so I barely have a formal understanding of it.
When "yo" does the action, conjugation is like this:
But when the action "yo" is doing is over himself, the conjugation is like this: