There are two kinds of adjectives: "explicativos" (explanatory) and "especificativos" (restrictive).
The explanatory adjectives tell you the quality of the sustantive. They appear before the sustantive or between commas.
The restrictive adjectives refer to a part of the sustantive. They appear after the sustantive without commas.
This sounds a little bit difficult, so let see some examples.
Los trabajadores agotados se fueron a casa. - The workers who were tired went home (but not all of them were tired).
Los agotados trabajadores se fueron a casa. / Los trabajadores, agotados, se fueron a casa. - The workers, all of them tired, (all of them) went home.
So, "buenos padres" and "padres buenos" are the same without context, but if you put them in a phrase...
Los padres buenos llevaron a sus hijos al colegio. - The parents who were good took their children to school (but not all of them were good).
Los buenos padres llevaron a sus hijos al colegio. / Los padres, buenos, llevaron a sus hijos al colegio. - The parents, all of them good, took their children to school.