- "In the cupboard" → "En la despensa"
- "On the cupboard" → "Encima de la despensa"
- "On the table" → "En la mesa"
- "In the table" → "???"
Esto no es una mesa con la despensa. La superficie de la mesa se abre. Esto es mi la mesa arquetipo. Se abre.
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Dentro de la mesa.
- dentro de
2.1 (=en el interior de) in, inside
2.2 (= después de) in
2.3 (= en los límites de) within
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged - 8th Edition 2005 © HarperCollins Publishers
Variant: Adentro de la mesa.
En la mesa is a good translation for both On the table and In the table
In English you can be very specific about where are the things placed. In contrast, Spanish can be very ambiguous and you'll need to say more in order to be more specific.
Dentro de la mesa is a good interpretation but if something is inside the table I'd rather say En el cajon de la mesa instead.
I would translate myself as "Sobre la mesa". Even though the correct English form would be "Over the table". Spanish is not specific all the time when referring to the positioning of objects and we often don't use "in" in the same way as it is used in English. We could say "dentro de la mesa" but that does not really make much sense unless we specify that it is in a cupboard or the table can be opened somehow.