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Can you say

Madrid quiere Amsterdam

meaning "Madrid loves Amsterdam"? Or do you have to add another word in between? Or even a whole different sentence?

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    If I heard the phrase "Madrid quiere Amsterdam", I would think they meant "Madrid wants to take over Amsterdam". When you consider that Spain once ruled the Netherlands, that's not so bizzare. See the answers for the correct translation. – Walter Mitty Nov 5 '16 at 8:47
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The sentence "Madrid loves Amsterdam" could be translated to:

Madrid quiere a Amsterdam
Madrid ama a Amsterdam

You only missed the preposition a. When you use the verb querer you can use it meaning that you desire something:

Quiero un plato de patatas fritas (no need for preposition as the desired thing is an object)

or meaning that you love someone:

Quiero a mi pareja (preposition is needed as the desired thing is a person)

In this case, both Madrid and Amsterdam are considered as the collective of people living in them, rather than the city itself, so you need the preposition.

Nonetheless, this kind of propagandistic sentences usually remain in English (at least in Spain), as everyone understand the typical "I ❤ NY" or similar sentences. And why not, it seems that English is cooler in advertising campaigns. Something that the RAE is trying to avoid.

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