Primero, mi pregunta en español:
En inglés, hay una diferencia entre "envy" y "jealousy." ¿Existe esta misma distincción en español?
Details in English:
If so, I am assuming that "envidia" corresonds with "envy" and "celos" with "jealousy." Correct?
As requested, I am going to add some definitions. Though I had many online resources to choose from, I really liked the way it was explained at Vocabulary.com, perhaps because it most closely resembled what I had remembered being taught in school. First, the definitions:
a feeling of grudging admiration and desire to have something that is possessed by another
spite and resentment at seeing the success of another (personified as one of the deadly sins)
a feeling of jealous envy (especially of a rival)
Though "envy" can be both a noun and a verb, to keep things simple, I only added the definitions of it as a noun.
Vocabulary.com actually devotes an entire page to the nuances in meaning between envy and jealousy. In essence, the difference is this:
Envy is when you want what someone else has, but jealousy is when you're worried someone's trying to take what you have.
For more details and examples visit Vocabulary.com's page on envy and jealousy.
I would rewrite this last addition in Spanish, but virtually the same thing is said in rodrigo's answer below.
Detalles en español:
Si lo es, estoy asumiendo que "envy" corresponde con "envidia" y "jealousy" con "celos." ¿Correcto?