Yes, there is the same difference and then a bit more.
We could translate your examples into Spanish as follows:
A few men went to the party --> A la fiesta fueron unos pocos hombres.
Few men went to the party --> A la fiesta fueron pocos hombres.
In the first example we'd probably say algunos hombres, but unos pocos hombres is usable, too. The meaning of these sentences are basically the same as in English.
Then, we also have a difference between poco and un poco. In this case, poco works as an adverb and may be translated as little in English, though this translation does not always work too well.
Pon un poco de azúcar sobre la tarta --> Put a little sugar over the cake
Pon poco azúcar sobre la tarta --> Don't put much sugar over the cake
The general meaning is similar, but un poco can be considered opposed to nothing, while poco is opposed to a lot. In both cases it is an amount between nothing and a lot, but the gist is different.