What should happen is given by many factors, including context and intent. Is it for a restaurant that you need this translation? Is it for a mid-school report? Is it for a deep analysis and further submission to a dedicated culinary magazine?
That said, here are some thoughts:
The country of origin is a bit difficult to know, and a vague question in general. Even the Wikipedia article about ceviche that you mention in your question serves as an example of this. As another example, both Chile and Peru claim the origin of Pisco Sour (that discussion has been particularly popular in the last couple of years, at least here in Chile).
Then you have the spelling. One of the bests restaurants for ceviche in the Peruvian city of Arequipa is called Cebillano, and the corresponding spelling there is cebiche.
You also have your own internal rules as to when to translate certain names (how purist you are). Should New York be translated to Nueva York? Is it Boston Red Sox or Medias Rojas de Boston? Both are OK in a given context. Whichever you choose will be OK if the context is adequate. Same with food and specific dishes.
My personal opinion is that you should avoid translating names of dishes that might not result in a natural description of their contents. Rice with duck is descriptive enough, but perhaps there is an established name for the same plate in the country where you live, or where you want to present your translation, in which case it would be better to use the local name. If the name of the dish is just a fancy or fantasy name, maybe you should keep it (for example, names of drinks), and explain its contents if you can.