Which are the words, parts of words and structures coming from Basque to Spanish language? And possibly in which periods did they become part of spoken Spanish and official Spanish (Castellano)?
From the top of my head, the most used one would be
There are others, like:
- zamarra or chamarra: though RAE says zamarra is a sheepskin jacket or similar, in the Basque Country we use it, in Spanish too, to mean overcoat or any coat, really (usually pronounced "chamarra").
- zulo: in Basque it literally means "hole", but thanks to ETA, the word entered the Spanish language meaning a hideout to hide weapons or kidnapped people.
I've found the following link with some more words. Some of them I really had no idea they were of Basque origin:
- Aquelarre: witches' sabbath
- Gabarra: barge
- Bacalao: cod
- Chabola: hut
- Chirimbolo: according to RAE, "Objeto de forma extraña que no se sabe cómo nombrar" (it seems now RAE says it of uncertain origin)
- Chistera: top-hat, and also the jai alai "basket" or xistera
- Órdago: in mus card game bidding all the remaining points. From there, it is also used as "ultimatum" (lanzar un órdago). And "de órdago" means "extraordinary".
The DRAE attributes a Basque origin to the following words:
It attributes a possible Basque origin to the following:
The word agur was borrowed from Basque, which in turn had borrowed it from Latin.
The word silueta comes from a fellow named Étienne de Silhouette, whose surname comes from the Basque zuloeta, which is related to the zulo mentioned by Mikmik in a previous response.
This list isn't comprehensive, of course. I didn't include words mentioned in previous responses, recent borrowings, or regionalisms.
You can search for "del vasco" on Dirae, which produces 88 results (from the DRAE):
Puedes usar la búsqueda "del vasco" en Dirae, que arroja 88 resultados (procedentes del DRAE):
abertzale, agur, aguín, aizcolari, amachinarse, amarreco, amilamia, anavia, angula, aquelarre, arangorri, arnasca, arrabio, astabatán, aurragado, aurresku, azcona, bacalao, barrunte, batúa, boruca, burga, carranca, cartolas, cencerro, cenzaya, chabola, chacolí, changurro, chaparro, chapela, charro, chatarra, chirula, chistera, chistorra, chueca, cinzaya, cococha, donostiarra, escarrio, esguín, etarra, euscalduna, euskera, gabarra, gamarra, gambalúa, ganzúa, gardama, gardubera, guiri, ikastola, ikurriña, izquierdo, jorguín, lastón, lasún, laya, lendakari, lurte, maqueto, mochil, mogote, molso, motil, mozcorra, muga, narra, narria, orzaya, pacharán, pelotari, pitarra, sabaya, sagardúa, sagarmín, sinsorgo, talo, tobera, zacuto, zamarra, zarandilla, zarrio, zatico, zorcico, zurrón y órdago.