In Mexico, besides cerveza we call beer the following:
- pisto (anything with alcohol)
These are used informally.
Are there any other words used to address beer in Spanish in other countries?
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In Spain it is very widespread to call it (colloquially) "birra" (from the Italian birra, itself from the German Bier).
Necesito una birra. (I need a beer) [slang]
You can also hear "rubia" for a lager. "Cerveza rubia" is the complete name, though informally some people call it just "rubia". The context of the sentence should make it clear you are referring to a lager beer instead of a blonde woman.
¿Me puedes poner una rubia? (Can I have a lager beer?).
And "caña" if it is a beer in a glass instead of in a bottle (which is called "botellín de cerveza" if it is small, "litrona" if it's a bottle of 1 litre). Also as Peter Taylor suggests (thanks) a third of a litre is called a "tercio" and you can use it to ask for 33cl of beer.
Quiero una caña. (I want a glass of beer)
Quiero una botellín de cerveza. (I want a bottle of beer)
Quiero una litrona (de cerveza). (I want a litre bottle of beer)
Quiero un tercio (de cerveza) (I want third of a litre of beer)
As MikMik points out there are some different names for the beer depending on the size of the glass. When the size of the glass is small (about 125 or 150cl) it is called in many ways, for example:
the name "caña" is usually for a bigger glass.
In Chile and Mexico: Chela:
¡Vamos por unas Chelas! → Let's go for some beers!
In Mexico beer is colloquially called in several different ways, here is a few ways I could think of off the top of my head:
That is all I could think of for now.
In Chile, we call a big glass of beer a shop. This is attested even by serious newspapers (e.g. here). It is not uncommon to hear Chileans say "vamos por un shop".
From this word is where a "famous" drink derives, the fanshop (a mixture of Fanta and beer).