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voiceless vs voiced consonants / consonantes sordas vs sonoras
@Nico: Indeed, though it depends on context; the first 'd' of dedo can be either [d] or [ð], depending on what sound precedes it. The same is true of /b/ ('b' and 'v'), which alternates between [b] and [β], and /g/ ('g' except in 'ge'/'gi'), which alternates between [g] and [γ]. And in all three cases, I think it's important to keep in mind that Spanish-speakers perceive it as the same sound (like how English-speakers perceive the same /p/ sound for the 'p' in pit as for the 'p' in spit).
Latinoamérica, Hispanoamérica, or Sudamérica?
This answer is good, but I think it's a bit incomplete. The terms are not synonymous, but in many circumstances more than one will technically be correct -- for example, if someone has moved to Peru, then one might say, "Fue vivir en _____". The question is, which would be preferred? (For example, in English, "he moved to South America" is more common than "he moved to Latin America", though both are correct.)