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En España la primera imagen y la tercera imagen se llaman frigorífico. La segunda lo llamaría mostrador.
Te digo como traduciría yo las frases que das de ejemplo: What is that thing on the wall?: ¿Qué es eso/la cosa esa de la pared? How does this thingy work?: ¿Cómo funciona este trasto? Please give me that thingamajig over there: Por favor, pásame el chisme ese de ahí. Then the, uh, whatchamacallit broke and I couldn't use it anymore: Luego el... eh... ...
In Peru we use "exhibidora", for supermarket i heard "góndola" or "góndola refrigerada" for the first that you showed
They are vitrinas because they have windows and are for display purposes. You have to add de adjetive refrigerador Searching in the web pages of companies that sell them, I see that the word most used for the third one is armario refrigerador
As in most -if not all- languages, the existence of a prefix -even if very common- does not rule out the existence of words with the same beginning that do not come from the same root. It may be seen as just a coincidence. It may (or may not) be an example of convergent evolution of words of diverse origin through sound change, a late (or old) borrowing from ...
The word "brasilero" is accepted by the Real Academia de la Lengua. So, you can use it instead of "brasileño" without any problem. Recommendation: when you doubt about a word, just check it at http://www.rae.es. To be honest, I always thought that "brasilero" was wrong but it turns out that is correct.
In Bolivia "sobaco" is really vulgar. Do not use it there. Way better to say "axila", for both humans and animals (even though the term is rarely used in animals).
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