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"Esta es la casa mía" may be correct, but I've never heard it from the lips of any native Spanish speaker. We always say "esta es mi casa". We use the form "mía": If someone asks "¿de quién es esa casa?", and you answer "mía", or "es mía". In sentences like "ese es tu vaso y este, el mío". (In many other cases.)


You shouldn't use that "contracted" form since it is a mistake. From the RAE: En la lengua culta debe evitarse el uso de adverbios como cerca, detrás, delante, debajo, dentro, encima, enfrente con adjetivos posesivos; así pues, no debe decirse ×detrás mío, ×encima suya, etc., sino detrás de mí, encima de él, etc. In cultivated language ...


From your examples: Esta casa es mía. Esta es mi casa. The meaning is the same. I would say that example 1.) emphasizes more who does the house belong to. Pretty much like my and mine, I believe? I would use 2.) in a more casual way, something like Look! This is my house whereas 1.) is more for This is mr. Smith's house, that is mrs. Robinson's, ...


As a general rule, you cannot have articles and demonstratives both in front of a noun: Nueva gramática de la lengua española (2009) (p. 1380) 19.1j El artículo, los demostrativos y los posesivos se excluyen mutuamente como introductores del grupo nominal, con excepciones […] But there are exceptions and so we can say that for the first one, yes. ...

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