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In Spain, in the schools I attended examen was used for the final test/exam at the of the term or the year. The quizes during the terms, usually about just one lesson, were called controles. EDIT: A control usually was taken at school, and it could mean that you don't have to take any examination on this anymore as happens in primary school, or you had to ...
In Colombia (and in most Latin American counties) there is no such structures in undergraduate education. Therefore, "major" and "minor" words are used only to speak about US educational system. Instead, in most latin american countries we have a system that differentiates between "professional" and "technician" education (educacón profesional y educación ...
At least when I was in school, the two words were always used interchangeably. Even if you look the term "prueba" in RAE one of its definitions is: Examen que se hace para demostrar o comprobar los conocimientos o aptitudes de alguien. Exam that is performed to demonstrate someone's knowledge or skills.
I asked this same question of my Spanish teacher who spent significant amounts of time in Spain (was married to a Spaniard and spent summers there.) His suggestion was to refer to the major as "especialización" and minor as "subespecialización". These are the best descriptions I've heard for describing the US system of study in Spanish terms.
In Mexico this short exam is called "parcial". RAE parcial: m. Examen que el alumno hace de una parte de la asignatura.
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