The em-dash has a wide variety of diferent uses in English. My question is how would you punctuate the following sentences in Spanish. Would the em-dash still work? If not, with what other punctuation mark(s) would you replace it with. (I am only looking for a basic punctuation rule to help indicate: a sudden change of thought, tone, interrumption, and/or emphasis.)
Use of the em dash to show a sudden change of thought:
- I was going to buy a—what did you say she wanted for her birthday?
- Mom needs to talk to you about—oh, please excuse me! I did not know you had company.
- I had a great day at the zoo—hey! Is that a jaguar?
Use of the em dash to show a change in tone or interruption:
- The new managing director of sales—I think his name is John Barry?—will be meeting with our manager early next week.
- “My brother told me that—” he began haltingly.
- I’m not sure what to do now that—oh, I can’t even think about it right now.
Use of the em dash to show emphatic phrases:
- Money—it was all he ever thought about.
- Time with family and friends—that was what Jan cared about now.
- We have worked together on this project for over three years—and never once has the team complained about the long hours.
This also makes me wonder, would the following sentences also be interpreted in the same manner, if I were to use an em-dash (i.e., would it still reflect the same writing style).
Note: I found the Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (DPD) to be rather vague on this subject, although, it does briefly mention that the em-dash (raya) can be used to enclose clarifications and parenthetical remarks. It doesn't help when the few examples that are given only show the em-dash being used to set off nonrestrictive appositives (I think?). It then goes on to talk about its other uses in dialogue and narrative texts.
P.S. I know that the use of the em-dash as shown is usually reserved for informal writing; however, I would still like to know if there is a Spanish equivalent.