Color classification and labelling are subjects of endless debate, even between people that talk the same language, so when there is a translation, you can imagine the difficulties.
My opinion is that it makes no sense to try and match all the color expressions from one language to the other, because that match will be different for every bilingual person you ask, or for every pair of speakers you try.
My idea for translation is that basic abstract color terms, that is, words that refer only to a color, without any additional adjective, should be translated as is, if the word is available in the target language. That is:
- blue -> azul
- green -> verde
- yellow -> amarillo
- red -> rojo
- white -> blanco
- black -> negro
- gray -> gris
- brown -> marrón
There is no point in trying to add details to a word that has none in the original. Plain "blue" may mean a lighter or darker tone, depending on the person talking, their cultural background, and even their sex or their mood.
Then, colors that refer to a flower, a fruit or a dye should be translated to the equivalent item, if it is available:
- orange -> naranja
- pistacchio -> pistacho
- violet -> violeta
- indigo -> añil
- purple -> púrpura
Adjectives should be translated literally, if it makes sense:
- light blue -> azul claro
- dark blue -> azul oscuro
- navy blue -> azul marino
But note that bright in English is much more used than brillante in Spanish. I would use claro as well:
- bright green -> verde claro
Some common colors should be translated with common sense:
- navy -> azul marino (in Spanish you do not use just "marino" as a color).
- pink -> rosa
- rosy brown -> rosa palo (?)
Naturally, there are times where this will look weird, because in one language the term is usual but in the other it is obscure, so translation discretion is advised:
- magenta -> magenta? lila?
- cyan -> cian? celeste? cerúleo?
Finally, some color idioms are invented on the spot or impossible to translate, so you will have to use imagination there.
About your suggestion about "azure", I find it unusual in English, and the tone is no so unambiuous, anyway.