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The sentence means "I am afraid of failure". Why do we use Le tengo instead of Yo tengo or Tengo? Moreover, why are we using al instead of de for of?

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For the first question, it's not compulsory at all to use "Le tengo" instead of "tengo" or "Yo tengo". It's a matter of choice on the speaker. It is true than in Spanish the subject is usually omitted, but it's not compulsory to do so. I think this answers the first part of your question.

As leis a pronoun referring to miedo al fracaso, Le tengo instead of tengodoesn't add any extra meaning to the sentence, and in fact thatleis reiterative and redundant.

On the second part, al is the contracted form of a el. This one is however compulsory to use, except in the case of personal names (such as Sara, but including brands that use the word El in their name, for example). This way, a el fracasois contracted to al fracaso.

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it's "a el fracaso" that is contracted to "al fracaso". –  rupps Mar 31 at 0:22
    
Haha, yeah, I mixed miedo and fracaso! Editing it now –  pHonta Apr 1 at 8:34

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