It actually depends on the region in which you are. As Omar said, frasco is quite understandable by all means with a proper context, but without it it can be interpreted differently.
As the RAE definition states, frasco is mainly a glass made of some material, it can be glass, porcelain or whatever (Glass and porcelain are the most common interpretations for the word.
(Del germ. *flaskô, funda de mimbres para una botella, botella; cf. a.
al. ant. flasca, nórd. flaska).
m. Vaso de cuello recogido, hecho de vidrio u otra materia, que sirve para contener líquidos, sustancias en polvo, comprimidos, etc.
m. Vaso hecho regularmente de cuerno, en que se llevaba la pólvora para cargar la escopeta.
m. Contenido de un frasco.
- m. frasco que por la forma de su gollete y de su tapón sirve para verter gota a gota su contenido.
~ de mercurio.
- m. Peso de tres arrobas de mercurio, que es la cabida de los antiguos frascos de hierro usados como envase en Almadén, en España.
Now about regionalisms these are the ones I personally know. I am a native Colombian
Tarro and Frasco are equally used and have a wide variety of meaning according to context. Usually glass, porcelain or metal.
We also use Jarrón, but this is a bit different, usually used for flowers, or for more heavy things, bigger things. Usually made of porcelain, but can be of glass as well; not metal.
Bote can also be used, but bote is more made of plastic and much bigger. Bigger than Jarrón even. Although depending on context can also be interpreted as the same size, but not the same material.
Chile | Argentina
Tarro is more understood as metal. Frasco would be the proper usage as it is understood as made from glass.
Tarro is widely used for a receptacle made of glass. Frasco is rarely used to say it, not to say awkward when used.
Tarro is more used than frasco, as tarro is interpreted as being made from glass. And usually (in Spain) the cofee is in glass, or metal containers (depends on region, in Colombia most are of metal or in plastic bags.)
Tarro and frasco are used, sometimes envase but it really is dependent on context, as for an industrial use, or using a frasco de café vacío for something else.
Tarro is more interpreted as a pint or glass of beer, or some other drink. Frasco is more interpreted for this use. Bote is seldom used for this context.
Bote can be understood for coffee more widely than in other regions. Nevertheless frasco is used as well.
Now, envase is more literal to container and more general. Lata is almost always made of metal (I don't know how it is interpreted in Equatorial guinea or the Philippines, but I think it's safe to assume they interpret it the same way as us Latin Americans)
Bote really depends on the region, as said in Central America it is more used than in other regions.
To make a safe bet use frasco or tarro. Frasco for a small recipient or container, and tarro for a bigger one specially if it is made of metal. Frasco is more glass, and tarro more metal.