Can "Son esas diferencias suficientemente grandes..." be used?
From what I've seen/heard, I say either phrase, with or without "lo", could be used without changing the meaning of the sentence.
I found this thread on WordReference, which discusses the same question and has varying responses (none of which seems to be definitive, and none of which makes major distinctions between the two). I'm not a native speaker, but I've asked around (as this is an interesting question), and most say there is no difference or, unconvincingly, that the "lo" gives the phrase a degree of emphasis.
So, if your question is for practical purposes, my conclusion is that you could use either formulation and be ok. If the question is purely academic, then wait for an answer from a Spanish grammarian. If your case is the latter, you might look at the very last answer (currently) on that WordReference thread. It attempts to explain the grammatical difference, though I'm unsure about its accuracy.