In Mexican spanish at least, I can think the following (I may be forgetting some):
- Andar hasta la madre ~ Being really drunk
- Estar hasta la madre ~ Being really far | Being sick/tired of something
- Valer/Importar madre ~ Being worthless | Not caring about something
- Ser a toda madre ~ Being cool/great
- Ir a madre ~ Travel really fast
- Darle (a alguien) en la madre | Partir (a alguien) la madre ~ Beating up someone
- No tener madre ~ Being shameless
- Ni madre(s) ~ Nothing | No way!
- Sepa la madre ~ Who knows?
- Poca madre ~ Can be either something bad i.e. que poca madre tienes is used to express disgust, or good i.e. esa cosa esta de poca madre is used to say something is good/great
- Madrecita/Madresota ~ something small/big
Why is it so, while some of these expressions may make sense if you're creative and think about how it can be related to a mother, some other are really seem to be unrelated to the actual concept of the word...