You are right. "No me hagas sentir culpable" does not discriminate between being really guilty and unjustly guilty very precisely. It just means "don't make me feel guilty".
In Spain, there is this really interesting idiomatic expression that's probably what you're looking for.
"Colgar el Sambenito" -> A mí no me cuelgues el sambenito.
The Sambenito (from "San Benito" - Saint Benedict) was a penitential garment that heretics had to wear in public during the Inquisition. It was an actual guilt trip. Nowadays, the figurative meaning of "colgar el sambenito a alguien" always implies that the guilt is unjust (you have been dressed with the garment without any justification). In its strongest meaning, and when intended to make the other culprit in public, it means something with similar connotations to "don't assign me a scapegoat role". However, the meaning is always related to "outside", to "the public opinion", not to your "inside" feelings. I am not sure if this is exactly the same meaning as a "guilt trip".
More info on Wikipedia (English) and in this page (Spanish).
However, I'd say this expression is becoming less and less frequent due to the diminishing interest and knowledge in religion and its related jargon (in most of Spain). In Spain, all people over 30-40 will understand you perfectly. I am not so sure how known this idiom among youngsters is...