I have read that both ser and estar can be used with casado to give different connotations to the phrase "to be married." What exactly are the differences, and when would you use each verb?
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"Ser casado" can have two differnt "connotations"
"Estar casado" means clearly "to be married".
This is purely my opinion (no "official" confirmation here).
Once in a while, the term "estar soltero" is used to describe a married man, usually with whimsical or humorous intent. It can range from something like the English slang phrase, "he's batching it this evening" to something carrying some innuendo.
This doesn't directly answer your question, but the use of "estar casado" when "ser casado" might have been expected can be sometimes heard as carrying a bit of humor with it.
Both "ser casado" and "estar casado" can be use without to refer who is the wife.
But only "estar casado" can be use to refer to the wife.