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What does "que" and "cual" mean without an accent mark? How do they compare when to each other? How do they compare to their accent-marked form?

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Qué and cuál are interrogatory pronouns, and are thus used when asking questions (see relevant question):

¿Qué ha ocurrido? → What has happened?

¿Cuál es tu número de teléfono?What is your phone number?

Qué can also be an exclamative adjective (if it is used before a noun):

¿Qué hora es?What time is it?

Qué can also be an exclamative adverb (if it is used before an adjective):

¡Qué guapa es! → How pretty she is!

Qué can also be used in exclamations (not only in questions). So qué (with accent mark) can be used in direct or indirect questions and exclamations:

¿Qué has hecho? → What have you done?(direct question)

No sé qué hacer. → I don't know what to do. (indirect question)

¡Qué guapa es! → How pretty she is! (direct exclamation)

Ya sabe qué dura es la vida. → He already knows how hard life is. (indirect exclamation)

Without accents, they are relative pronouns:

Rebeca es la mujer con la que vas a viajar. → Rebeca is the woman with whom you are going to travel.
Rebeca es la mujer con la cual vas a viajar → Rebeca is the woman with whom you are going to travel.

Que (without the accent) can also be a conjunction:

Quiero que vengas. → I want that you go. / I want you to go.
Llámame antes de que llegues. → Call me before you arrive.

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