Romper is the most common and general verb, basically because you can use it to replace all the others except quebrantar (and still only in some uses) and still keep the meaning of the original sentence.
Quebrantar is usually reserved for laws and rules (in an abstract and non-physical way) and still can be replaced with romper. The only meaning where you cannot use romper instead of quebrantar I can think of right now is when applied to people, in a sense similar to make someone to confess. You can quebrantar a alguien but you cannot romper a alguien.
For all this, to break can almost always be translated to romper, but bear in mind that in the simplification you may lose some value.