How did the vos personal pronoun come to be? Is it etymologically related to vosotros in any way? Did it develop before or after the other personal pronouns used today (tú, usted, vosotros, etc)? Was it used in Spain and then transferred to Latin America, or did it develop independently in Latin America?
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So what I gather is that
Notice how I removed the
This article has a good explanation of above:
As far as its origin, the same article linked above says that the use of
So, to answer your questions:
After reading the article I linked, I'd say that it was developed after
According to Wiktionary, vōs is the plural second-person pronoun in Latin. The Latin vōs became the singular second-person vos in Spanish, which was then pluralized by appending the -otros suffix to form vosotros (i.e., vos y otros).
The Spanish tú comes from tū, the singular second-person pronoun in Latin.
A previous question already explained that usted comes from vuestra merced.